background shape

Knee Pain - Causes

Knee pain can have various causes, including ligament injuries, meniscus issues, chondromalacia, PFPS (patellofemoral pain syndrome or jumper's knee), patellar dislocation, and degenerative changes within the knee itself (osteoarthritis). The cause of knee pain is determined based on comprehensive tests conducted by a specialist - a physiotherapist, who may confirm their suspicions through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Knee Pain Treatment at Fizionova Center

Physiotherapeutic interventions are among the most effective and long-term solutions for knee pain. The treatment depends on the patient's current condition and the nature of the damage. However, in 90% of cases, complete elimination of pain and restoration of knee mobility is possible. In the remaining 10%, treatment may need to continue through surgical means, which is typically required for severe injuries.

The treatment goals are primarily to relieve the patient from pain and stop the inflammatory process. Most importantly, the aim is to eliminate the root cause that led to the condition in order to achieve a long-term solution and prevent the problem from recurring.

After a detailed examination and MRI scan to identify the cause of the problem, therapists at our centre will create a personalized treatment plan for your case. This plan may include recommendations for prevention, and specific medications that can help, but perhaps the most crucial part of knee pain treatment consists of therapy following protocols for knee injury treatment. One of these therapies is the application of the most advanced method that has proven to be effective in pain relief - FSWT targeted therapy.

These protocols are specially designed for knee-related injuries, and their effectiveness is evidenced by numerous professional athletes who have returned to their daily activities after receiving treatment at Fizionova Center.

So, if you have any problems or discomfort related to knee pain, we recommend that you schedule an appointment as soon as possible. Our specialists will conduct a thorough diagnosis and create a specialized treatment plan for your case.

Common Causes of Knee Pain in Athletes and Recreational Sport Enthusiasts

Physical activity is one of the best ways to ensure that your joints, including your knees, and your entire body function optimally. However, certain activities can lead to injuries, and these injuries often involve the knee area.

The most common problems experienced by professional athletes and individuals engaged in recreational sports include:

  • Ligament Sprains
  • Meniscus Injuries
  • Tendon Inflammation (Tendinitis)
  • Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS or Jumper's Knee, Dislocated Patella)

If a knee injury is not treated properly, there is a legitimate concern that it will recur or continue to cause more severe issues.

Other factors that can also cause knee pain include:


Overuse of the knee, falls, or frequent squatting and kneeling can irritate the bursa, leading to pain and swelling (prepatellar bursitis). This condition is common among floor layers and ceramic tile installers due to the prolonged time spent in a crouching position. It is also characteristic of athletes who have frequent contact with the ground, such as handball players, basketball players, volleyball players, soccer players, and martial artists, as well as gymnasts.

Patellar Dislocation

This condition, known as patellar dislocation, involves the kneecap (patella) slipping out of its position. It often results in knee pain and swelling. The patella almost always dislocates laterally or to the outside. The causes of dislocation can include jumps during activity or injuries (falls). Once dislocation has occurred, recurrent dislocations can be expected, especially if treatment is not carried out to the end.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The iliotibial band is the tissue that extends from the hip muscles down the thigh to the outer part of the knee. Excessive physical activity can lead to inflammation of this tissue and cause pain on the outside of the knee. This condition is quite common among cyclists and runners who frequently run downhill.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis refers to inflammation in the tendon that connects the knee cap to the shinbone. Overexertion during exercise can lead to inflammation, which directly results in knee pain. This condition is commonly referred to as "jumper's knee" because repetitive jumping is one of the most common causes.


In some cases of knee injury, the knee's cartilage structure, the meniscus, can tear. Rough edges of the cartilage can become lodged in the joint, causing significant pain and swelling. There are inner and outer meniscus, and because of their specific location, inner meniscus injuries are more frequent.

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

This condition occurs in young individuals whose bones and other parts of the knee are still developing. It is particularly common in teenagers and boys up to 18 years old. Osgood-Schlatter disease may lead to a painful bump below the knee or where the knee tendon attaches to the shin. Symptoms can be alleviated by reducing physical activity, and the condition worsens with frequent running, squatting, jumping, climbing, and descending stairs. Swelling under the knee may sometimes accompany pain, and knee pain may also occur in the other knee.

Knee Pain Caused by Different Conditions

Knee pain is not solely due to injuries and specific activities. There are also underlying conditions that can result in these symptoms. These conditions include:


Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of knee pain in individuals aged 50 and over. This condition causes pain around the knee joint and swelling during activity. Joints affected by osteoarthritis may also feel stiff in the early morning hours.

Patellofemoral Syndrome

Patellofemoral syndrome, or patellofemoral pain syndrome, refers to inflammation caused by muscle imbalances and leg misalignment. Inflammation leads to knee pain and occasional knee "giving way," with the feeling that the knee cannot suddenly bear the body's weight. This condition is more common in women than in men.




Leading center for innovative therapies in the region


Dr Jelena Kluz-Đurđević, a specialist in physical medicine

After a conversation with the patient, Dr. Jelena will conduct an examination to obtain a more comprehensive view of your health status, helping to determine whether it's an injury or a diagnosis.

The examination lasts for 30 minutes and includes:

Schedule a specialist examination by calling 011 2100 588 for the cost of 4,000 RSD.